Welcome to BirminghamTutors. We have experienced Primary tutors who can support your child through the following key stages:
Key Stage 1
Key Stage 2
11+ Preparation and Independent Schools’ Entrance Exams
To find a tutor please click on ‘find a tutor’ and fill out your details. We will put a specialist Primary tutor in touch with you.
Structure of the primary national curriculum
Key stage 1 Key stage 2
Age 5 – 7 7 – 11
Year groups 1 – 2 3 – 6
The core subjects include English, Mathematics and Science.
The foundation subjects include Art and design, Computing, Design and technology, Geography, History, Music and Physical Education.
Religious Education is taught at all key stages.
Numeracy and mathematics
Primary children need to understand and appreciate the importance of mathematics. Therefore, mathematical fluency should be developed through all relevant subjects. Like language and literacy, confidence in numeracy is vital for children to be successful across the primary national curriculum.
Primary children should be taught to apply numeracy to problems. They should be able to understand and use measures. They should apply their geometric and algebraic understanding to problems, and apply their understanding of probability to the ideas of risk and uncertainty.
They should also understand the process of collecting, presenting and analysing data.
Language and literacy
Primary children should be taught to speak clearly and share their ideas confidently using Standard English. But what is Standard English? Standard English is a set of rules in spelling, grammar and vocabulary that is used widely by the educated and is widely accepted wherever English is spoken or read or written or understood. For example, the following statement:
I could of learned my six times table but I couldn’t be bothered.
in Standard English would read:
I could have learned my six times table but I didn’t care enough to try.
Primary children should learn to give reasons for their ideas; ask questions to check their understanding; and increase their vocabulary. They should learn when to use Standard English, for example, in formal situations.
They should be taught to give well-structured descriptions and explanations and develop their understanding through speculating, hypothesising and exploring ideas. This will enable them to clarify their thinking as well as organise their ideas for writing.
There are two aspects to reading at key stages 1 and 2 , which are word reading and comprehension (both reading and listening).
To be a skilled word reader involves working out quickly the pronunciation of unfamiliar printed words (decoding) and quickly recognising familiar printed words. To be skilled at both means that the Primary child understands that the letters on the page represent the sounds in spoken words. This is why, in the early teaching of reading to beginners, the use of phonics should be encouraged.
Good comprehension or understanding has its basis in the Primary child’s knowledge of Standard English and knowledge of the world. Through Primary children’s reading and discussing a range of stories, poems and non-fiction, comprehension skills develop. It is paramount, therefore, that all Primary children must be encouraged to read widely across both fiction and non-fiction. From their reading, they should develop knowledge of themselves and the world in which they live. Reading widely and often increases Primary children’s vocabulary because they meet words they would not usually hear or use in everyday speech.
Writing at key stages 1 and 2 is constructed similarly to those for reading: transcription (spelling and handwriting) and composition (expressing ideas and structuring them in speech and writing). It is essential that Primary children develop their competence in these two dimensions. In addition, they should be taught how to plan, revise and evaluate their writing.
Transcription and composition need to work together in order to write down ideas fluently and clearly. To write a lively composition involves expressing ideas in an organised way. To be successfully understood requires spelling accurately through understanding the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding word structure in sentences. Writing also depends on clear handwriting.
Primary children should develop the ability to write at length, with accurate spelling and punctuation. They should be taught the correct use of grammar. They should build on what they have been taught to expand the range of their writing and the variety of the grammar they use. The writing they do should include narratives, explanations, descriptions, comparisons, summaries and evaluations: such writing supports them in understanding and making sense of what they have heard or read.